(Sometimes referred to as "lube") is a substance (often a liquid) introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction between them, improving efficiency and reducing wear.
Have the function of dissolving foreign particles. Petroleum-based lubricants like Vaseline tend to dissolve petroleum products such as rubber and plastic; water-based lubricants will dissolve polar chemicals; silicone-based lubricants can breakdown silicone toys.
It protects the internal combustion engines in motor vehicles and powered equipment.
Contain 90% base oil (most often petroleum fractions, called mineral oils) and less than 10% additives. Vegetable oils or synthetic liquids such as hydrogenated polyolefins, esters, silicone, fluorocarbons and many others are sometimes used as base oils.
Lubricants are comprised of a base fluid, usually of petroleum origin, combined with added chemicals that enhance performance. Base fluids are collected from two main sources. Refined crude oil or a mixture of chemical compounds that perform the same task.
Types of Lubricant Additives
There are many types of chemical additives mixed into base oils to enhance the properties of the base oil, to suppress some undesirable properties of the base oil and possibly to impart some new properties. Additives typically make up about 0.1 to 30 percent of the finished lubricating oil, depending upon the target application of the lubricant. Lubricant additives are expensive chemicals, and creating the proper mix or formulation of additives is a very complicated science. It is the choice of additives that differentiates a turbine (R&O) oil from a hydraulic oil, a gear oil and an engine oil. Many lubricant additives are available, and they are selected for use based upon their ability to perform their intended function. They are also chosen for their ability to mix easily with the selected base oils, to be compatible with other additives in the formulation and to be cost effective. Some additives perform their function within the body of the oil (e.g., anti-oxidants), while others do their work on the surface of the metal (e.g., anti-wear additives and rust inhibitors).
PURPOSE or FUNCTION OF A LUBRICANT
Keep moving parts apart.
Carry away contaminants & debris.
Protect against wear.
Seal for gasses.
Stop the risk of smoke and fire of objects.
A large number of additives are used to impart performance characteristics to the lubricants. The main families of additives are
Oxidation is the general attack of the weakest components of the base oil by oxygen in the air. It occurs at all temperatures all of the time but is accelerated at higher temperatures and by the presence of water, wear metals and other contaminants. It ultimately causes acids (which produce corrosion) and sludge (which results in surface deposits and viscosity to increase) to form. Oxidation inhibitors, as they are also called, are used to extend the operating life of the oil. They are sacrificial additives that are consumed while performing their duty of delaying the onset of oxidation, thus protecting the base oil. They are present in almost every lubricating oil and grease.
Detergents perform two functions. They help to keep hot metal components free of deposits (clean) and neutralize acids that form in the oil. Detergents are primarily used in engine oils and are alkaline or basic in nature. They form the basis of the reserve alkalinity of engine oils, which is referred to as the base number (BN). They are typically materials of calcium and magnesium chemistry. Barium-based detergents were used in the past but are rarely used now. Since these metal compounds leave an ash deposit when the oil is burned, they may cause unwanted residue to form in high-temperature applications. Due to this ash concern, many OEMs are specifying low-ash oils for equipment operating at high temperatures. A detergent additive is normally used in conjunction with a dispersant additive.
Friction modifiers are typically used in engine oils and automatic transmission fluids to alter the friction between engine and transmission components. In engines, the emphasis is on lowering friction to improve fuel economy. In transmissions, the focus is on improving the engagement of the clutch materials. Friction modifiers can be thought of as anti-wear additives for lower loads that are not activated by contact temperatures.
Viscosity index improvers.
Viscosity index improvers are very large polymer additives that partially prevent the oil from thinning out (losing viscosity) as the temperature increases. These additives are used extensively when blending multi-grade engine oils such as SAE 5W-30 or SAE 15W-40. They are also responsible for better oil flow at low temperatures, resulting in reduction in wear and improved fuel economy. In addition, VI improvers are used to achieve high-VI hydraulic and gear oils for improved start-up and lubrication at low temperatures. To visualize how a VI-improver additive functions, think of the VI improver as an octopus or coil spring that stays coiled up in a ball at low temperatures and has very little effect on the oil viscosity. Then, as the temperature rises, the additive (or octopus) expands or extends its arms (making it larger) and prevents the oil from thinning out too much at high temperatures. VI improvers do have a couple of negative features. The additives are large (high molecular weight) polymers, which makes them susceptible to being chopped or cut up into small pieces by machine components (shearing forces). Gears are notoriously hard on VI-improver additives. Permanent shearing of the VI-improver additive can cause significant viscosity losses, which can be detected with oil analysis. A second form of viscosity loss occurs due to high shearing forces in the load zone of frictional surfaces (e.g., in journal bearings). It is thought that the VI-improver additive loses its shape or uniform orientation and therefore loses some of its thickening ability. The viscosity of the oil temporarily drops within the load zone and then rebounds to its normal viscosity after it leaves the load zone. This characteristic actually aids in the reduction of fuel consumption. There are several different types of VI improvers (olefin copolymers are common). High-quality VI improvers are less susceptible to permanent shear loss than low-cost, low-quality VI improvers
Demulsifier additives prevent the formation of a stable oil-water mixture or an emulsion by changing the interfacial tension of the oil so that water will coalesce and separate more readily from the oil. This is an important characteristic for lubricants exposed to steam or water so that free water can settle out and be easily drained off at a reservoir.
Emulsifiers are used in oil-water-based metal-working fluids and fire-resistant fluids to help create a stable oil-water emulsion. The emulsifier additive can be thought of as a glue binding the oil and water together, because normally they would like to separate from each other due to interfacial tension and differences in specific gravity
Pour Point Depressants
The pour point of an oil is approximately the lowest temperature at which an oil will remain fluid. Wax crystals that form in paraffinic mineral oils crystallize (become solid) at low temperatures. The solid crystals form a lattice network that inhibits the remaining liquid oil from flowing. The additives in this group reduce the size of the wax crystals in the oil and their interaction with each other, allowing the oil to continue to flow at low temperatures.
Rust and Corrosion Inhibitors
These additives reduce or eliminate internal rust and corrosion by neutralizing acids and forming a chemical protective barrier to repel moisture from metal surfaces. Some of these inhibitors are specific to protecting certain metals. Therefore, an oil may contain several corrosion inhibitors. Again, they are common in almost every oil and grease. Metal deactivators are another form of corrosion inhibitor
Anti-wear (AW) Agents
These additives are typically used to protect machine parts from wear and loss of metal during boundary lubrication conditions. They are polar additives that attach to frictional metal surfaces. They react chemically with the metal surfaces when metal-to-metal contact occurs in conditions of mixed and boundary lubrication. They are activated by the heat of contact to form a film that minimizes wear. They also help protect the base oil from oxidation and the metal from damage by corrosive acids. These additives become “used up” by performing their function, after which adhesive wear damage will increase. They are typically phosphorus compounds, with the most common being zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP). There are different versions of ZDDP — some intended for hydraulic applications and others for the higher temperatures encountered in engine oils. ZDDP also has some anti-oxidant and corrosion-inhibition properties. In addition, other types of phosphorous-based chemicals are used for anti-wear protection (e.g., TCP).
Extreme Pressure (EP) Additives
These additives are more chemically aggressive than AW additives. They react chemically with metal (iron) surfaces to form a sacrificial surface film that prevents the welding and seizure of opposing asperities caused by metal-to-metal contact (adhesive wear). They are activated at high loads and by the high contact temperatures that are created. They are typically used in gear oils and give those oils that unique, strong sulphur smell. These additives usually contain sulphur and phosphorus compounds (and occasionally boron compounds). They can be corrosive toward yellow metals, especially at higher temperatures, and therefore should not be used in worm gear and similar applications where copper-based metals are used. Some chlorine-based EP additives exist but are rarely used due to corrosion concerns.
Anti-wear additives and extreme pressure agents form a large group of chemical additives that carry out their function of protecting metal surfaces during boundary lubrication by forming a protective film or barrier on the wear surfaces. As long as the hydrodynamic or elastohydrodynamic oil film is maintained between the metal surfaces, boundary lubrication will not occur and these boundary lubrication additives will not be required to perform their function. When the oil film does break down and asperity contact is made under high loads or high temperatures, these boundary lubrication additives protect the wearing surfaces.
Dispersants are mainly found in engine oil with detergents to help keep engines clean and free of deposits. The main function of dispersants is to keep particles of diesel engine soot finely dispersed or suspended in the oil (less than 1 micron in size). The objective is to keep the contaminant suspended and not allow it to agglomerate in the oil so that it will minimize damage and can be carried out of the engine during an oil change. Dispersants are generally organic and ashless. As such, they are not easily detectable with conventional oil analysis. The combination of detergent/dispersant additives allows more acid compounds to be neutralized and more contaminant particles to stay suspended. As these additives perform their functions of neutralizing acids and suspending contaminants, they will eventually exceed their capacity, which will necessitate an oil change.
The chemicals in this additive group possess low interfacial tension, which weakens the oil bubble wall and allows the foam bubbles to burst more readily. They have an indirect effect on oxidation by reducing the amount of air-oil contact. Some of these additives are oil-insoluble silicone materials that are not dissolved but rather dispersed finely in the lubricating oil. Very low concentrations are usually required. If too much anti-foaming additive is added, it can have a reverse effect and promote further foaming and air entrainment.
are working mainly in the field of lubricant additives either Crankcase
Packages or Industrial ones. Also, ACPA can produce lubricant oils with
all API grades , and in different SAE grades. Our products are based on
additive packages of global international companies like : Infineum,
Lubrizol, Rhein Chemie, Additive Chemie, ….etc.
ACPA have different API grades either for high tear grades or low tear ones.
API (CD, CF/SF, CI4/SL, CF4, CH4, CG4… etc)
API (SF, SL/CF, SC/CC…. etc)
In SAE (mono grade 40&50) and (multi grade 15W/40, 20W/50, 25W/50).
Also, we have additives for gear oil in different API, with different SAE.
API (GL3, GL4, GL5, MT1)
In SAE (mono grade 90 & 140) and in (multi grade 85W/90, 80W/140).
ACPA have additive packages, and lubricant oils for different applications of industry like:
Hydraulic Oil: - (Which approved by CM P68, P69, P70 & Dension HF0, HF1, and HF2 & Vickers I-286S).
Turbine Oil :- (Which approved by DIN 51515, part 1(L-TD), BS 489, Brown Boveri HTGD 90117, US Steel 120).
Compressor Oil :- (Which approved by DIN 51506 (VBL, VCL, VDL); ISO/DP 6521 (DAA, DAB, DAH, DAG).
In different ISO VG (32, 37, 46, 68, 100, 150)Gear Oil: - (Which approved by US Steel 224, AGMA 250.04, AGMA 9005- D94). In different ISO VG (220, 320, 440). Metal working Fluids: are used in the metal working in the field of Iron, Aluminum, Copper industries in different applications like: Broaching, Punching
Die casting, Drawing, Grinding, Cutting, and Drilling.
Automatic Transmission Fluid
Antifreeze and Coolant
Automatic Transmission Fluid
ACPA have different products use in automatic transmissions, power steering units and certain manual transmissions; it is usually operated through wide temperature range without fluid changes. ACPA ATF products are qualified by general motors cooperation and Ford type CJ and also, Allison C-3 for transmissions. Moreover, they are used in off high way transmissions power steering and other hydraulic systems. We are working with global
international brands for DOTs 3, 4, 5. Our products have either ABIC or CASE LAB certificates.
ACPA brake fluids are suitable for use in normal motors, vehicles, and motorcycles of drum and disc type, hydraulic brake and clutch systems.
ACPA brake fluids are high quality brake and clutch fluid, meets the following performance requirements
SAE J 1703 (for DOT 3) & SAE J 1704 (for DOT 4). - FMVSS 116.
We are working with global international brands for DOTs 3, 4, 5. Our products have either ABIC or CASE LAB certificates
Antifreeze and Coolant
Biocides are often added to water-based lubricants to control the growth of bacteria. antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid , protecting a system from the ill effects of ice formation An antifreeze mixture is used to achieve freezing-point depression for cold environments. Common antifreezes also increase the boiling point of the liquid, allowing higher coolant temperature. Because water has good properties as a coolant, water plus antifreeze is used in internal combustion engines and other heat transfer applications, such as HVAC chillers and solar water heaters. The purpose of antifreeze is to prevent a rigid enclosure from bursting due to expansion when water freezes. Commercially, both the additive (pure concentrate) and the mixture (diluted solution) are called antifreeze, depending on the context. Careful selection of an antifreeze can enable a wide temperature range in which the mixture remains in the liquid phase, which is critical to efficient heat transfer and the proper functioning of heat exchangers. Secondarily but not less importantly, most if not all commercial antifreeze formulations intended for use in heat transfer applications include different kinds of anti-corrosion and anti-cavitation agents that protect the hydraulic circuit from progressive wear.
What are the different types of antifreeze
There are different types of antifreeze technologies that are found in a rainbow of colors on the shelf at the automotive parts store
Inorganic Acid Technology (IAT)
is the chemical basis for the traditional green antifreeze. IAT contains either ethylene glycol or propylene glycol and is usually fortified with silicate or phosphate additives. These are quick-acting corrosion inhibitors that provide protection for the metal components of the cooling system. IAT coolants are generally recommended for replacement every three years or 36,000 miles.
Organic Acid Technology (OAT)
is an Extended Life Coolant (ELC) that is usually ethylene glycol based and does not usually contain silicates or phosphates like the IAT. Rather, it contains ingredients such as sebacate, 2-ethylhexanoic (2-EHA) and other organic acids. The corrosion inhibitors in OAT are slower acting but much longer-lived that in IAT. OAT is excellent for aluminum and cast iron components but not usually for copper or brass radiators in older systems. It is generally recommended for replacement every five years or 150,000 miles.
Hybrid Organic Acid Technology (HOAT)
combines IAT and OAT by using organic acids, but not 2-EHA. Small doses of silicates are added to provide quick-acting protection for aluminum surfaces. As HOAT antifreeze ages some of the silicates may drop out of the solution leaving abrasive particles circulating in the cooling system. This can speed up the wear on water pump seals and other plastic components. To avoid these problems, most HOAT antifreezes use stabilizers to keep the silicates in the solution, and they contain only a small amount of silicates. The generally recommended replacement interval is five years or 150,000 miles.
Phosphate hybrid organic acid technology
P-HOAT coolants mix phosphates with HOAT. This technology is typically used in Asian makes and is often dyed red or blue.
Silicate hybrid organic acid technology
Si-OAT coolants mix silicates with HOAT. This technology is typically used in European makes and is often dyed pink. If you top off your coolant with a different type than what is there, it will probably shorten the life of the antifreeze in your vehicle, meaning you should flush your cooling system sooner than recommended. After flushing the system, refill it with a single type of antifreeze that is recommended by the manufacturer and continue with the proper maintenance.
ACPA coolants are blend of premium ingredients and modern technology that increase the wetting ability of water and thereby increasing the transfer of heat from metal parts to the engines coolant.
ACPA coolants have the following features:-
Reduces Maintenance Cost
Protects Water Pump and Seal
Increase Cooling System Efficiency
Give Proper Thermostat Operation
Prolong Engine Life
Prevents Radiator Corrosion
Enhances combustion of fuel oils.
Maintains stack solid emissions within permitted levels.
Reduces acid smutting.
Helps to maintain boilers clean.
improves combustion efficiency.
Saving the fuel consumption.
Contains a detergent enabling a cleaning of the engines.
It cleans the carburetor, nozzles and valves. It cleans and inhibits corrosion of fuel system.
Increases the efficiency of the installations.
Reduces maintenance of the equipments.
Decrease the emission of soot and carbon mono oxide.
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Reducing the fuel combustion.
Reducing the maintenance time.
Reducing the pollution emissions.
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Mono Ethylene Glycol
Mono ethanol amine
Sodium Lauryl Ethyl Sulphate
Methyl Isobutyl Kenton
Non-Anionic Surfactant (NP9)
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Sodium hexameta phosphate
Sodium nitritebox. Click again or double click to start editing the text.